Where does all the rubbish go

Where does all the rubbish go?

Have you ever wondered where all the rubbish goes after collection? Well, we thought we would let you know.

The UK produces 400 million tons of waste every year. Most comes from quarrying, mining, demolition and construction. Around 30 million tons is household waste. For every ton of household rubbish, commercial, industrial and construction businesses produce a further six.

In London your waste will initially end up at Viridor Waste Management plant at Crayford, south-east of London, where they try to sort it out.

About 4,000 tons of stuff for recycling arrives here each week, from nearly 30 local authorities’ recycling collections. “This is a tiny fraction of what London produces,” shouts Mary Corin, Grosvenor’s director of recycling development.

Britain’s biggest waste management site handles the jumbled product of an increasingly common system of collecting recycling, which is known as “commingled”. Instead of cans, bottles, paper and plastic being loaded into separate compartments on a recycling lorry, “commingled” recycling is compacted in what looks like a normal refuse truck.

Though this system has its critics – Friends of the Earth among them – it is quicker and cheaper for councils to collect it in this way. It doesn’t need to be separated into different hoppers, and because it’s crushed, each truck can collect from many more households. But the councils then pay to have the mess sorted out into its different components at a materials recovery facility such as Grosvenor.

Vast drums rumble around, sifting out cans, small items and glass. Conveyor belts speed past magnets and air jets and photo-recognition equipment, to separate tin from aluminium, paper from plastic. Lines of employees check the final conveyors, plucking out items by hand.

Britain’s rush to recycle, driven by EU and Government targets means UK reprocesses are unable to cope with it all. At least 4 million tons of UK industrial, commercial and household waste is shipped overseas, much of it to feed the economies of India, China and South-east Asia.

Environmental campaigners say this is dumping, and that much of our waste paper, cardboard, plastic and electronics are sorted in an ecologically disastrous system. But China is desperate for every kind of raw material, and, in the madhouse of globalised trade, it makes financial sense to send some of our household plastic and paper there. Many ships that bring Far Eastern imports to Europe would otherwise return all but empty.


Paper is one of the most successful areas of recycling. Around 57 per cent of paper used in the UK is recovered and recycled. Because Britain makes 6 million tons of paper a year, yet imports a further 6 million, UK paper mills are already using all the recycled paper they can. To avoid being dumped or burned, excess “waste” paper must be exported for recycling. British papermakers use a higher proportion of recycled paper (74 per cent) than any other European country (average 45 per cent).


On average, every household uses 373 plastic bottles each year, most of which ends up in the rubbish, only 29 percent are recycled. The quantity of plastic bottles recycled has more than doubled since 2002. Recycling one can save enough energy to light a 60W bulb for up to six hours.

Plastic is one of the hardest materials to recycle, as it needs to be sorted. Bottles are the easiest. After being processed into flakes or pellets, they can be remade into fleece jackets, traffic cones, drainage pipes, street furniture, garden furniture, carpets, stuffing for sleeping bags, and toys and playground equipment.


Aluminium drinks cans are most likely go to Novelis Recycling in Warrington, which operates Europe’s only dedicated aluminium can recycling plant. Five billion aluminium cans are used in the UK each year – but nearly two-thirds are dumped, even though aluminium is one of the easiest materials to recycle, one of the most environmentally beneficial and valuable.

It’s the only recyclable material that covers its cost of collection and reprocessing, and can be endlessly recycled with no loss of quality, saving 95 per cent of the energy required to make cans from raw materials. The low recycling rate is mainly because a third of all canned drinks are consumed away from home, and then put in litter bins. “Tin cans” are really steel. Every year some 13 billion are used in the UK, and even though each one is 100 per cent recyclable more than half are landfilled. Recycling at UK steel plants saves up to 75 per cent of energy needed to make new cans from virgin materials.


Glass recycling hit record levels in 2005 – 1,272,000 tons. But this is only 50.8 per cent of the total amount of glass we use. So another 1.2m tons were dumped across the country.

Glass recycling now reduces carbon dioxide emissions by around 200,000 tons each year in the UK, and UK glassmakers used a record 742,000 tons of recycled glass in 2005 (British-made bottles and jars now contain on average 35.5 per cent recycled glass).

Another 250,000 tons of glass from recycling collections were exported to Europe; and 280,000 tons were used in construction or roadmaking.

Low-value, crushed green glass (which cannot be mixed with clear or brown to make new clear glass bottles), or mixed glass is used in building or road materials, for filtration systems in swimming pools, and is even being trialled in place of sand for bunkers on golf courses

Garden & Kitchen waste

This is composted and either sold on to horticultural suppliers, or used in parks. It is the most-collected type of recycling. Local authorities have made great efforts to collect kitchen and garden waste partly because it is quite heavy – and since their recycling rates are measured by weight, this is a good way to boost tonnage, and meet targets. (Plastic, in contrast, is hugely bulky and very light.)

If you need any help with your waste/rubbish removal, please just get in touch!